One type of optical constant that describes the ability of a material to absorb light. The conversion of light or other electromagnetic radiation into heat energy. This light energy cannot be reflected back to an observer. The selective absorption of light is responsible for our perception of color. It is calculated during colorant set calibration, and is based on transmittance measurements.
Absorption coefficient (K)
An optical constant that quantifies the ability of a colorant to absorb light. Based on reflectance data for a sample, it is one of the values calculated during colorant set calibration, using the Kubelka-Munk equation. It is part of the data used to calculate color matches and corrections.
A subjective evaluation to determine whether a detectable color difference can be tolerated. Color differences may be measurable and perceptible, and still be tolerated.
One of six ingredient types used by the pigment formulation program. It identifies a collection of ingredients sometimes worked with as a group, usually for purposes of formula scaling. An additive cannot be a colorant and does not have a strength factor. It can only exist as a component ingredient. Use additive for the ingredient type when the material does not fit any other category.
The affinity group is an optional field in textile formulation software that is used to group qualities with the same dyeing properties.
Appearance properties are attributes of a sample, other than color, that can affect both the instrumental measurement and the visual assessment of a colored sample. These properties include gloss, film thickness, opacity, and surface characteristics such as haze, roughness, etc.
Chemicals to be used for dyeing, finishing, etc. In pigment formulation, it is one of six ingredient types used by the program. It identifies a collection of ingredients sometimes worked with as a group, usually for purposes of formula scaling. An auxiliary cannot be a colorant and does not have a strength factor. It can only exist as a component ingredient. Use “auxiliary” for the ingredient type when the material does not fit any other category.
Mixture of transparent resins, solvents and/or additives necessary to make a colorant ready to use. Typically used in making up a sample for primary calibration.
One of six ingredient types used by the pigment formulation program. It identifies a collection of ingredients sometimes worked with as a group, usually for purposes of formula scaling. Ingredients that you may need to scale or constrain as a group can be identified as a base. A base can be a colorant and has a strength factor attached to it. NOTE This ingredient type is largely reserved for the “autobase select” feature
Base (Trade Sales Paint)
A coating or paint mix which is a final product for use in a trade sales application. Bases are usually pastel (white), medium, deep, extra deep, transparent, or colored. Bases are tinted with colorant dispersions (pastes) in laboratories, factories, or dealer locations.
The resin used to prepare the mixture samples in a colorant database set.
The substrate used to prepare the mixtures. The spectral values of the substrate are needed to calculate the optical constants for the materials included in the samples.
Calibration data (colorant or colorant set)
The calculation of optical constants for an individual colorant, or for an entire colorant set. The optical data for colorants can be calculated individually or simultaneously for an entire set. When an individual colorant has been calibrated and marked active, the colorant can be used for formulation and correction. When a colorant set is calibrated, the colorant set is available for formulation and correction. Depending on the application type, there are a minimum number of samples (types) that must be calibrated in the colorant set. For textile applications, it is concentrations of dyestuffs and a blank dyed Substrate which (when measured with the spectrophotometer) become part of the match prediction database in the form of colorant sets.
Measured sample dyed with defined concentration and dye strength. The data of the calibration samples is used for recipe calculation and correction. Calibration samples are used to calculate the calibration data (K/S) for each dyestuff used for recipe calculation and correction.
Can Fill Requirements
Short Fill, Full Fill, Over Fill and Correct Fill
This is one of six ingredient type used by the pigment formulation program and displays only when concentrate scaling is enabled in the software. It identifies the portion of resin that is mixed with the colorant to produce the concentrate and remains in the concentrate. In effect, it “carries” the concentrate to the end user who will add more resin (the user-supplied resin). It may or may not be the same resin used in the finished product. The carrier resin is specified at run-time in pigment formulation, along with the user-supplied resin.
One of six ingredient types used by the pigment formulation program. It identifies a collection of ingredients sometimes worked with as a group, usually for purposes of formula scaling or restricting colorant load. It can be a colorant but does not have a strength factor attached to it. The materials identified as “clears” are typically resins or extenders. All “clears” are assumed to have zero K and zero S, except for those used in translucent colorant sets.
A color is an ingredient typically used to impart color to a material. It can be a colorant and it has a strength factor. It is also one of the six (6) ingredient types used by the pigment formulation program and identifies a collection of ingredients sometimes worked with as a group.
The magnitude and character of the difference between two colors located in a color space solid, or map, under specified conditions. The total color difference is designated as DE, the lightness difference as DL. In addition, differences are expressed along the redness-greenness axis, and the yellowness-blueness. Certain color difference calculations offer additional components to the color difference expression.
Color inconstancy is the color difference if a single sample is illuminated with different light sources. The magnitude of color inconstancy can be defined by DE CMC (or any other color difference formula) of the sample between two light sources.
The color index is produced jointly by SDC (Society of Dyers and Colourists) in the UK, and the AATCC (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists) in the USA. The index is split into two parts: one part gives the commercial names for the individual dyes; the other part of the index gives the color index number and lists the commercial names for the dyes using that number. Refer to Color index number.
Color index number
Every dye is given a color index number based on its chemical type. The same number is given to the dyes with the same chemical structure. For example, Resolin Red FB and Dispersol Red B2B, both have the color index number “CI Disperse Red 60.” The index number is divided into four sections: 1) CI stand for color index and is displayed in every color index number 2) The next section is the dye type, e.g., Disperse, Acid, etc. 3) The third section is the color, according to a defined list of color names, e.g., Red Yellow, Orange 4) The last number is increased every time a new dye is added to the index; in the example above, “CI Disperse Red 60″ is the 60th red disperse dye to be added to the index. Refer to Color index.
Three-dimensional solid enclosing all possible colors. Colors are located in the solid through their calculated color coordinates. The distance between the samples in the color space solid is the color difference. The properties of the solid are transformed, though the application of various equations, i.e., giving rise to different calculations of the distance between the samples.
Measured color of a sample. The color type is the target color to be dyed.
A set of optical constants, and the data used to generate those optical constants. This data includes the optical model, mixture grouping type, colorant concentrations, density, curve smoothing method, instrument geometry, measurement type, and other data used to calculate the optical constants. A coloring matter; a dye, a pigment, or an ink.
Colorant (Trade Sales Paint)
A pigment used to tint a base.
Colorant “level” refers to information about the colorant concentration(s) contained in the mixtures, and the optical data calculated for the mixtures.
The proportion of a formula represented by the colorant. The proportions of all the ingredients in a formula must remain balanced for the finished product to satisfy the function(s) for which it was developed. For example, house paint must stick to the walls and hide the background. These properties are achieved by mixing the ingredients in specific proportions. When the colorant load exceeds a certain amount, the product loses its integrity.
Colorant “mixture” data includes the formula used to make the primary sample(s), and the measurement data for the sample(s).
A collection of colorants and default settings used to create them. The type of colorant set created determines the optical model/type of optical data calculated. Ingredient records for an ingredient system contain the physical data (e.g., density, strength, lot identification, etc.) for the colorants in a colorant set. The colorant set contains all the optical data for a colorant, including spectral data, information on substrates, processes, qualities, optical constants (K/S, K & S, or A) and specular and internal reflectance values. Optical constants are used to calculate formula predictions.
Colorant set maintenance
A program feature that provides the ability to create, edit, or deletes data for an entire colorant set.
Colorant set type
Refers to the method of sample preparation, sample presentation, and optical model used to calculate the optical constants in a colorant set. Four different colorant set types are offered in pigment formulation software: • Transparent • Transmission • Translucent • Opaque
A set of numbers, usually 3, that locates a sample in a color space. The coordinates are specific to a particular color space. The most used coordinates include XYZ, CIE L*a*b*, and Hunter Lab. • X,Y,Z coordinates are used to plot samples in the CIE chromaticity diagram • L*a*b* coordinates are used to plot samples in CIEL*a*b* color space. • Hunter Lab coordinates are used to plot samples in Hunter Lab space. Colorimetric data is linked to one Illuminant/Observer condition. If you do not carefully identify the Illuminant/Observer selection to use, the evaluations you make using this data may be incorrect. In addition, if you input colorimetric to describe a sample, you can only perform color evaluations. You will not be able to perform matching or correction activities. Also referred to as “color space coordinates.”
A combined process is used to describe the entire dyeing process either for laboratory or production. A treatment is generated for each calibration dye process type (e.g.,Exhaust, Continuous) linked to the combined process.
Colorless entities are used to make primary samples and add no value to the color itself. Components are ingredients that make up the clear material: extenders, solvents, vehicles, resins, additives.
An intermediate form of a color used in plastics applications. Typically, a concentrate will contain all the major components of the formula; resin, colorant, and solvent, but not in the proportions required of the finished product.
In plastics applications, when concentrates are added to a batch of virgin resin to achieve the correct color, additional resin must be added to the batch to make it a finished product. The program uses a factor to adjust, or scale, the proportion of color concentrate and resin to create the finished product. Concentrates are used in different proportions for various products, and the factor for a specific concentrate can change from one product to the next.
The white colorant used for tinting and/or top-off. The Concentrated White may also be used as the CALIBRATING WHITE in the preparation of some types of colorant sets.
For some products, the batch size itself does not tell you how much material you need to complete a production run. For example, when you print a pattern on a wall covering, you need enough ink to print an entire roll. In this example, consumption refers to the amount of ink used or ‘consumed’ to print a roll of wall covering.
Contrast DE is the color difference between the sample measured over a pair of contrasting backgrounds. Typically, the backgrounds are ‘light’ and ‘dark’ but there are other types of contrasting background used in industrial applications, such as red and gray primers used in automotive applications and black and white contrast cards.
A calculation used to determine if a sample is translucent or opaque. The sample is measured over a light and dark background and the two measurements are compared. When the sample has a contrast ratio greater than 99.9%, it is completely opaque. A number less than 99.9 indicates that some light is passing through the sample. The contrast ratio of a sample is directly affected by its film thickness. If the material is not applied to the proper film thickness, the contrast ratio and the color tolerance may not be achieved.
Textile formulation software supports three types of correction: • Laboratory correction: The existing recipe is altered and saved again. Every additional laboratory correction reduces the differences to the color sample. • Production correction: An additional recipe is calculated that is used to change the color of the dyed batch to the correct color. • Fast correction: Used for a production correction without an existing rec- ipe. It is based on a theoretical calculated recipe of the standard.
A method for evaluating the differences between two spectral curves. It is a comparison, point by point, of the reflectance or transmittance values for each curve. When the curves are an exact fit, the match is referred to as an invariant match, and it is not metameric. Curve fit is used as a technique for evaluating the differences between a measured target, and formula prediction. A spectral curve is synthesized from the formula prediction and compared to the measured curve of a target. Curve fit is also used as a technique for evaluating the performance of colorant data used in correction predictions. The curves of the measured trial sample and the synthesized correction prediction are compared, and the differences are used to adjust the correction prediction.
D65 / D6500
A standard daylight illuminant. It refers to the spectral power distribution curve of a daylight illuminant having a correlated color temperature of 6500K.
Da, Delta A
Difference in red-green component. In certain transformed color spaces, generally used as the Da, or difference between a sample and a standard reference color along the redness-greenness axis. It is always calculated for a specific Illuminant/Observer condition. If “a” or Da is plus, the sample has more redness than greenness than the standard. If “a” or Da is minus, there is more greenness than redness. It is normally used with b to express the chromaticity or chromaticity differences between samples. Da* is the redness-greenness differences calculated using the 1976 CIEL*a*b* color difference calculation. Da is the redness-greenness differences calculated using the Hunter Lab color difference calculation. • +Da. More red (less green) • -Da. More green (less red)
Db / Delta b
Difference in yellow-blue component. In certain transformed color spaces, generally used as Db, the difference in “b” between a sample and a standard reference color along the yellowness-blueness axis. It is always calculated for a specific Illuminant/Observer condition. Generally, if “b” is plus, there is more yellowness than blueness, if “b” is minus, there is more blueness than yellowness.. It is normally used with “a” to express the chromaticity or chromaticity differences between the samples. Db* is the yellowness-blueness differences calculated using the 1976 CIEL*a*b* color difference calculation. Db is the yellowness-blueness differences calculated using the Hunter Lab color difference calculation. • +Db. More yellow (less blue) • -Db. More blue (less yellow)
DC* / Delta C
Difference in chroma. In certain transformed color spaces, used as DC, the differences in chroma or chromaticity between a sample and a standard. It is always calculated for a specific Illuminant/Observer condition. The concept of chroma is used in CIEL*a*b* color difference calculation, and is expressed as deviation from gray, excluding the luminous intensity of the samples. • +C. Sample has higher chroma • -C. Sample has lower chroma.
DE (Delta E)
Total color difference, computed by all color difference equations. It is always calculated for a specific Illuminant/Observer condition. The interpretation of this number is directed related to the color difference equation used to calculate it. DE is always a positive value.
Density is weight per volume. It is a number used to convert ingredient amounts from a weight form to an equivalent volume form, and vice versa. The specific gravity of an ingredient is one example of a density value. It is expressed as a single number that represents the weight of the material per unit volume; for example, grams/cc, lbs/Gal, KG/L, etc. The user can create a density using a combination of any defined weight unit and any defined volume unit.
DH* / Delta H*
Difference in hue. In certain transformed color spaces, a parameter is used to express the differences between the sample and the standard along the hue axis/circle. It is always calculated for a specific Illuminant/Observer condition. Typically, differences in hue have the greatest impact on the visual evaluation of colored samples. • +DH. Sample is moving from standard counterclockwise around the hue circle. • -DH. The sample is moving from standard clockwise around the hue circle.
DL / Delta L
Difference in lightness. In certain transformed color spaces, generally used as DL to express the differences between the sample and the standard along the achromatic dimension in a three-dimensional color space. This axis ranges from black through various levels of gray to white. It is always calculated for a specific Illuminant/Observer condition. This expression is included in all color difference calculations. • +DL. Sample is lighter • -DL. Sample is darker
Colorant in the physical form of a powder.
Classification of dyes according to the chemical composition and reaction, e.g., disperse, reactive.
Dye fiber group
Group of fibers dyed in the same bath with the same dyestuffs, e.g., Cotton/Viscose.
The dye process contains Dye class, Process type and Process factor. The dye process is associated with combined process and colorant set.
The attribute of color which increases the concentration of the Colorant, all other conditions remaining the same.
Description of the dyestuff, e.g., gran., conc., supra. The dyestuff type is used to specify the dyestuff name.
Envision Assigned Name
Each device and profile have an assigned name. This is the name that the user chooses to uniquely identify that device or profile. It should be carefully chosen to help the user remember the specific device being referred to and, where appropriate, to help remind the user as to the specific device settings that the profile pertains to. E.g., “Epson photo paper 360dpi”
The process of generating a profile for a device in Datacolor Envision software
Envision Default Device
Each device class has a default device. That is, there will be one default-monitor and one default-printer per system. The default device is the one that is used in absentia of any contrary instruction by the user.
Envision Default Profile
Each device has a default profile. The default profile is the one that is used for a device in absentia of any contrary instruction by the user.
A color reproduction device. For our purposes, this is either a monitor or a printer.
A collection of objects displayed in their correct context. Contains all required information to fully reproduce a scene, including illuminant, observer and gamut mapping information, etc.
A device independent of LCh format image.
Either a tile or an image.
Contains the complete calibration information required to reproduce colors on a device that is configured for a specific set of conditions. A device may have several profiles containing calibration information for different device conditions. For example, a monitor may have a profile for each colorimeter used with the system, or a printer may have a profile for each kind of paper that is used.
A solid rectangle of color in the Datacolor Envision software.
Mixture of transparent resins, solvents and/or additives. Primarily used to alter the strength of mixtures that include colorants.
Used for production correction without an existing recipe. It is based on a theoretical calculated recipe of the standard.
Single fiber to be dyed.
All fibers used for a Quality / Style. A fiber group can be a single fiber or a combination of different fibers, e.g., PES, PES/CO.
Film thickness is a physical property that is related to the dry film. It can be expressed in percentage (%), or a number representing a unit of measurement. If you are working with transparent or translucent samples, differences in film thickness have a significant impact on the acceptance of a color match. A formula from Formula Central must be applied at the displayed film thickness to achieve the other specifications included in the formula display, such as contrast ratio, color difference, or others.
The form describes the type of physical material you are using. For example, colorants can be dry powder, dispersions/ concentrates, or finished products.
The mode refers to how you measure the ingredients that go into the formula. For example, if you weigh the amounts of each ingredient, the formula mode is weight units. If you assemble formulas based on volume, or specific gravity (gallons, liters, cc’s, etc.) you will need the formula expressed in volumetric units.
When working with volumetric formulas, it is often the case that a formula expressed in decimals cannot be used directly. For example, the formula calls for 0.77 gallons of Relative Magenta. If you are working in gallons and fluid ounces, you must manually convert the .xxx gallons into the equivalent ounces. In this case the equivalent ounces of Relative Magenta are: .77 X 128 oz/gal = 98.56 ounces A formula that directly expressed ingredient amounts in the number of gallons and fluid ounces would be more useful in this application. The Fractional Parts feature provides this conversion.
The specific range of colors that may be reproduced by a device. For monitors, this is the range of colors that can be reproduced on a screen. For a printer, this is the range of colors that can be reproduced using a particular ink-set on a particular paper.
The method of replacing a color that is outside the gamut of a device with the most appropriate alternative color that is within the gamut of that device for reproduction purposes.
Refers to the smooth, mirror-like reflection coming from a sample. It is also referred to as specular. This feature can be measured and evaluated. Gloss values are specific to the type of gloss meter used for the evaluation. The pigment formulation program can consider data from 3 gloss meters: 20°, 60° and 85°. To the right of the gloss range field is a second field that contains the gloss meter selections. Please be sure that your gloss values are from the same gloss meter selected.
Colorant sets are created to simulate a specific production process. Although you may use the same colors in two different products, separate colorant sets are created for each product because the processing is significantly different. The ‘handling’ information entered into a colorant record provides specific information about the process you are trying to simulate with the physical samples you have prepared.
Intermediate, semi-aqueous form of a colorant that contains dry colorant, resin and solvents. Another term for ‘heavy’ is ‘concentrate.
Mathematical description of the relative spectral power distribution of a real or imaginary light source. This is the amount of relative energy emitted by a source at each wavelength in its emission spectrum, as compared to an equal energy source.
Illuminant / Observer
Mathematical description that integrates the relative spectral power distribution of a real or imaginary light source with the standard observer functions for either the 2° or 10° condition.
Index of refraction
The index of refraction is the speed at which light travels through a medium. Air is one medium, and its index of refraction is 1.0. The colored sample you measure is made of some material, and it has an index of refraction different from air. Because of index of refraction differences, when the light travels through air and encounters the sample, some of the light is reflected at the sample surface and never penetrates the sample.
A material used to create a colored sample. In pigment matching software, all raw materials including colorants are considered to be ingredients and are assigned an ingredient type. The program can break ingredients down into parent ingredients and component ingredients or sub-ingredients.
Ingredients may contain any number of components that may, themselves, have components. “Form” describes a level of expansion of a colorant into component ingredients. Three “special” forms are given user-definable labels: • Unexpanded-Typical labels include Base, Ready-To-Use, Light. • Expanded One Level-Typical labels include Heavy, Paste, Neat, Concentrate. • Completely expanded into components- Typical labels include Dry, and Powder. The default choices for the colorant form are defined in the Colorant Set. The customized labels for ingredient form are defined in System Administration.
(also formula mode). Mode refers to how you measure the ingredients that go into the formula. For example, if you weigh the amounts of each ingredient, the ingredient mode is weight. If you assemble formulas based on volume, or specific gravity (e.g., gallon, liter, cc, etc.) the ingredient mode is volume.
A number representing preferred display order. It is assigned through Ingredient Maintenance. You can decide to display ingredients by Rank, Name or by the ingredient amount. If you want the ingredients presented in a particular order other than name, you must assign a rank.
An ingredient type, or category, is assigned to every material in your pigment matching system. In a formula, each material has a specific function, and the function determines its ingredient type. A formula can contain the following basic ingredient types: • Colorant • Clear • Thinner • Auxiliaries • Bases Assigning ingredient types to materials allows you to work with ingredients as a group. This may be useful for scaling formulas, and setting constraints on a formula, such as colorant loading.
Daily procedure used to standardize the performance of the instrument. It is done to account for changes in the environment (humidity, heat, dust, etc.) that can change the performance of the instrument.
A comparison of measurements made of the same sample, using the same instrument. The variation in measurements is expressed in terms of DE. Manufacturers of spectrophotometers for commercial use include a value for repeatability in the instrument specification. This value is only valid for comparisons of measurements of an achromatic sample (typically a white). The sample being used must have a uniform surface free of defects and cannot exhibit any characteristics of geometric metamerism.
Inter-instrument agreement / reproducibility
A comparison of measurements made of the same sample by different instruments. The variation in sample measurements is expressed in terms of DE. Manufacturers of spectrophotometers that are used commercially include a value for inter-instrument agreement in the instrument specification. Instrument manufacturers typically provide a specification for inter-instrument agreement. This specification is valid when comparing the same instrument models. When comparing two different instrument models or manufacturers, you may see significant differences in the inter-instrument agreement.
That amount of energy that enters a sample and is trapped inside the sample because it is unable to travel across the air/sample boundary.
Jobs contain all the instructions and data the program uses to complete matching and correction activities. It includes specific information regarding software options to be activated, tolerances, and the screen configuration. Unlike a job template, a job also contains data, such as spectral data for the standard and batch, and the formula predictions that were both calculated and prepared while the job was being processed, etc.
All the activity for a job is stored in the job record. The record consists of pages, each of which records the activity, both input and output, for a particular job state. Before results are displayed, Formula Central is in an “input” state. Each time a user receives results for a discrete activity (formulation, correction, search, manual/modify), a job page is completed. Pages in the active job can be viewed at any time by clicking on the job page buttons in the toolbar.
The job state identifies the current condition, or ‘state’, of Formula Central, and is reported in the status bar at the bottom of the window.
A job template contains all of the instructions the program needs to create a job, but it does not contain any data. Specifically, the job template provides initial settings for: • the fields to be displayed in the evaluation screen and the formula grid • the acceptability tolerances for the match • the rules for sorting the formulas The job template serves as the starting point for your work, providing you with the tools needed to complete the job (the correct software options, tolerances, etc.). Because it does not hold on to data specific to a particular color, a job template can be used over and over again—it guides you through the process of matching and correcting colors.
Limits set on specific properties of a colored sample, such as color difference, film thickness, etc. Job tolerances are used by the program to determine if the differences between two samples are acceptable.
Kubelka Munk coefficient of Absorption. The optical property that describes the absorption of light by a colorant or mixture of colorants.
The ratio of the optical constants, K (absorption coefficient) and S (scattering coefficient) for a colorant. It is part of the equation used to calculate formulations and corrections. The equation states that K/S can be calculated from the reflectance of a sample: (this is a division expression) K/S = (1-R)2 / 2R It also states that K/S is directly proportional to colorant concentration. Knowing the reflectance measurements of the samples, and the concentration of colorants in the mixtures, the K/S of the mixture can be calculated.
Kubelka Munk theory
A theory that describes the optical behavior of materials which scatter and absorb radiant energy.
The existing recipe is altered and saved again. Every additional laboratory correction reduces the differences to the color sample.
In formulation software, level refers to a particular type of data stored in a colorant record. Level data includes the volumetric concentration of colorant in the mixture, and the optical data calculated for that volume concentration. When calculating optical constants, the program always works with the colorant concentration expressed as a volume percent. In most cases, weight concentrations are provided on the Mixtures tab. These are converted to the equivalent volume percent based on the formula used, and the ingredient densities provided. The volumetric concentration is displayed on the Level tab. Because the volume concentration is usually calculated, it is considered theoretical data.
Electromagnetic radiation that a human detects through visual sensations that arise from the stimulation of the retina of the eye. This portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum includes wavelengths from about 380nm – 770nm. It is incorrect to refer to electromagnetic radiation outside of this range (i.e., ultra-violet wavelengths) as ‘light’, since the human observer does not detect it visually. Adjective meaning high reflectance, transmittance, or level of illumination as contrasted to dark or low level of intensity.
An object that emits radiant energy (light) to which the human eye is sensitive. The emission of a light source can be described by the relative amount of energy emitted at each wavelength in the visible spectrum. This numeric description is an Illuminant. The light source can also be described in terms of its color temperature, expressed in Kelvin. For example, there are several daylight sources, such as D5000 and D6500 that have different color temperatures.
A colorant/vehicle mixture that contains a single colorant.
Identifies the settings on the instrument. These include: • Measurement type (reflectance or transmittance) • Aperture Size • Specular Port position (Specular Included or Specular Excluded) • Position of adjustable UV filter
Identify the source of the spectral data for the sample.
Two samples which match under one set of conditions but no longer match on changing one or more of the conditions.
A pair of colors that match under one or more sets of conditions but differ markedly in color if you change one or more of the conditions. A phenomenon exhibited by a pair of colors that only match under one set of viewing conditions. A metameric pair of samples have the same tristimulus values for a specific set of viewing conditions but have different reflectance curves.
A metamerism index is used to quantify the amount or degree of metamerism that exists between two samples. It considers the color difference between two samples, under two different Illuminant/Observer conditions.
A finished sample containing a specific concentration of color. The measurement of the sample, the concentration of color, and other information about the sample is entered using Colorant Set Maintenance. This information is used to calculate the optical data for the color. This sample can also be referred to as a “primary”.
A module contains pre-selected answers to the fields appearing on Ingredient Selection screen. If you frequently use the same ingredient selections, number of colorants in formula, etc., you can create a module that automatically makes those selections. Using a module reduces the input for each match or correction and reduces the possibility of input errors.
Reflectance data of a dyestuff is manipulated for a non-linear build-up of K/S. It is used when an error in making a sample or contamination causes the build-up curve to dip and divert in the opposite direction to the general trend. Monotone means keeping the same slope as the general trend.
One billionth of a meter (10-9). It is also known as a millimicron. It is used to measure the wavelengths of energy found in the electro-magnetic spectrum. Wavelengths of energy in the form of visible light measure from 400 – 700 nanometers.
Descriptive of a match that is commercially unacceptable.
A general term used to describe the degree to which a material obscures a substrate. It is the opposite of ‘translucency’, the degree to which a material does not obscure a substrate. Opacity and/or translucency are measured in terms of a contrast ratio.
An adjective used to describe complete opacity.
In textile formulation software, the operation specifies the sequence of action to be done during the dyeing. Actions may be parameters (e.g., temperature, volume,) or products (e.g., chemicals, etc.).
An ingredient that fluoresces. When this happens, the ingredient absorbs light at a specific wavelength in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum and re-emits it at a wavelength in the visible spectrum. The energy is usually re-emitted at the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum (i.e., in the blue region of the visible spectrum), and the resulting effect is that the material displays brighter, bluer, or ‘whiter than white’. Also referred to as a fluorescent agent or fluorescent brightener.
Also referred to as optical data / optical properties. A numerical description of the way an ingredient interacts with light. Optical data is typically generated for colorants but may also be calculated for other ingredient types such as resins, depending on the ingredient composition. Optical data can be expressed using the following terms: • K(absorption) and S(scattering)values • K/S values • A(absorbance) The same colorant used in different product lines may generate different optical data.
In pigment formulation software, it is the mathematical approach used to calculate the K (absorption) and S (scattering), K/S values or A (absorbance) values for colorants. There are four models to choose from: • Transparent • Transmission • Translucent • Opaque Each type uses a specific method for sample preparation and sample presentation, and a specific mathematical equation for calculating the optical constants.
Process by which the program calculates optical constants through a curve fit between the sum of the level data and the sum of the mixtures data.
The parameter values in textile formulation software (e.g., “fastness”) are defined in a colorant set for each dye and used to set limits for the recipe calculation.
Intermediate, semi-aqueous form of a colorant that contains dry colorant, resin and solvents.
Clear or extender added to dry material to make paste.
Refers to a difference between samples that can be detected visually. In the case of colored samples, color differences detected using an instrument may not be perceptible.
Data gathered by the correction program that helps the system to understand how the ingredients in the batch are performing. The program offers two types of performance data: • Performance factors • SmartMatch performance data Selections are made in job preferences regarding the type of performance data to be applied to a correction.
In pigment formulation software, users may also define permanent Performance Factors for individual colorants in each colorant set. For colorants, a Performance Factor is a multiplier to concentration, similar to ingredient strength. They are used to improve the quality of formula predictions. Temporary performance factors are calculated during correction, based on the Job Trial formula and measurement.
A physical sample containing a specific concentration of color. The measurement of the sample, and the formulas used to make the sample is referred to as a mixture and is entered into the colorant set record using Colorant Set Maintenance.
A liquid form of colorant dispersion, or paste used in the actual tinting or color matching of your bases.
In textile match prediction, used to consider differences in dyestuff build up. The dyestuff concentrations are multiplied with the process factor.
In textile formulation software, process types are Exhaust, Continuous, or Cold Pad Batch.
In textile formulation software, a product is either a dyestuff or an auxiliary.
An additional recipe is calculated that is used to change the color of the dyed batch to the correct color.
Contains the specific calibration information required to reproduce colors for viewing under a specific illuminant by a specific observer on a device that is configured for a specific set of conditions. Qualified profiles are generated from profiles such that each profile may have several qualified profiles. A qualified profile is typically defined by the combination of its illuminant and observer.
Quality / Style
Quality is used to define the type of fabric you are going to dye. lt contains a reference to the composition and describes whether the fabric is used for exhaust or continuous dyeing or both.
Ready to ship
Ready to use colorant ratios separated by pigment, solvent, and additive. The solvent and additive percentages that make up the ready to use amount are defined for each colorant in the colorant set.
Ready to use
Ratios of colorants as prepared in primary calibration.
Ready-to-use / press ready / finished product
A finished product that contains resins, solvents, colorants and additives in the correct proportions.
A process which identifies and calculates the amounts of each coloring matter in a material so that the final color looks like (i.e. matches) the given sample in a specified light source and price. It is possible to get several combinations which match the sample so the process can give the most cost-effective one.
An ingredient that has already been processed and can be re-used in other formulas. It may also be referred to as ‘waste’ or ‘work off’.
The ratio of the intensity of the reflected light to that of the incident light. In popular usage, it is considered as the ratio of the intensity of reflected radiant energy to that reflected from a defined (white) reference standard.
Reproducibility / inter-instrument agreement
A comparison of measurements made of the same sample by different instruments. The variation in sample measurements is expressed in terms of DE. Manufacturers of spectrophotometers for commercial use include a value for inter-instrument agreement in the instrument specification. This value is only valid for comparisons made using instruments of the same model.
One or a group of organic materials, either natural or synthetic, serves as a vehicle for the colorant. Resins can impart gloss, adhesion, heat resistance, odor retention, resistance to chemicals, hardness, film-forming abilities, and other properties to the finished product. Alternate names include vehicle, clear, and extender.
In Datacolor software, it is the measured color stored with its spectral values. A colored object that may be measured, evaluated, matched, or corrected. When you are working on a job, a sample may be a target (standard), or trial (batch). The spectral and or colorimetric description of a sample can be stored in a folder, at any time, for future use.
A comparison of differences in samples made using the same raw materials, equipment, and processing technique. Repeatability can be expressed through a DE value. The more repeatable your sample preparation techniques are, the more accurate your formulas will be.
A comparison of the differences between samples due to changes in the sample preparation procedure. Differences can be caused by changing one or more of the following: • Technical • Type of equipment used • Mixing Method • Curing Method • Method of Application • Batch size The degree of reproducibility can be expressed through DE. The more reproducible your process is, the more accurate your formulas will be.
The attribute of color perception that expresses the degree of departure from a gray of the same lightness. All neutrals (white/black/gray) have zero saturation. The term saturation is often associated with the intensity or brightness of a sample. When working with the 1976 CIEL*a*b* or CMC color difference equations, the dimension of chroma(C* and DC*) approximately relates to the saturation of the sample.
Equation for calculating a correction for the Fresnel reflectance at the surface of a dielectric material for both the incident light and the exiting light.
Diffusion or redirection of radiant energy when light encounters particles having different refractive indices. Scattering occurs at boundaries between different mediums regardless of whether they are external to the sample (i.e., air/resin interface) or internal to the sample (i.e., resin/pigment particle interface).
Scattering coefficient (S)
The optical property that describes the scattering of light by a colorant or mixture of colorants. An optical constant that quantifies the ability of a colorant to scatter light. Based on reflectance data for a sample, it is one of the values calculated during colorant set calibration, using the Kubelka-Munk equation. It is part of the data used to calculate color matches and corrections.
A resin that is not completely transparent. The resin can contain particles that absorb light, scatter light, or both. The result is that the background is obscured. This causes the material to appear cloudy, or translucent.
Single constant / one constant
A resin that is not completely transparent. The resin can contain particles that absorb light, scatter light, or both. The result is that the background is obscured. This causes the material to appear cloudy, or translucent.
Information about a specific laboratory or production dyeing stored in the database. This information is used to improve first-time matching and correction.
A group of SmartMatch points which were all dyed on the same substrate using the same dyes.
The reflectance data is manipulated in such a way that minor variations in the build-up of a dyestuff are eliminated by a least mean squared fit.
Another term for thinner. It is a component ingredient, usually a solvent or diluent, added to a formula for viscosity adjustment.
The smooth, mirror-like reflection coming from a sample. When the light travels through air and encounters the sample, some of the light is reflected at the sample surface and never penetrates the sample. We refer to this portion of the reflected light as the specular component. For the calculation of optical constants, matching and correction predictions, all spectral measurements must be corrected to account for the loss of energy due to this specular effect.
Specular Component Excluded-SCE
A type of measurement geometry. Measurement of reflectance made in such a way that the regular surface reflection is not part of the measurement. This can be accomplished through the following techniques: • Using 0°(perpendicular) incident light on the samples, thereby reflecting the specular component of the reflectance back into the instrument. • Using black absorbers or light traps at the specular angle when the incident angle is not perpendicular. • Measuring at an angle different from the specular angle in directional measurements. • For a sphere instrument, opening a hole in the sphere opposite the measuring optics.
Specular Component Included-SCI
A type of measurement geometry. Measurement of reflectance made in such a way that the regular surface reflection is included in the measurement.
Light striking a surface and being reflected, or turned back, at an angle equal to the angle of incidence. The reflected light is specular reflectance.
Measured color to be matched (target color). In Datacolor textile matching software, a standard becomes a color type.
A numeric description of the way the human eye responds to color. The spectral response characteristics of the average observer are officially defined by the CIE. Two such sets of data are defined, the 1931 data for the 2° visual field (distance viewing) and the 1964 data for the annular 10° visual field (approximately arm’s length viewing. NOTE: All of the expressions of colorimetric data (screen displays and hard copy) explicitly state the illuminant / observer condition used to determine the values.
Definition of different dilutions used for optimizing the accuracy of manual dyestuff pipetting and to prevent that the maximum of the dye solution is not to be exceeded.
The relative ability of a unit quantity of colorant to alter the color of another colorant to which it is added. In popular usage, tinting strength is an index of effectiveness with which a chromatic colorant imparts color to a standard white pigment. In a mixture of pigments, the absorption strength or the scattering strength, or both, may affect its apparent strength. In any case, tinting strength comparisons of materials of different chemical types may vary with the concentrations of colorants used, so care must be exercised in selecting relative concentrations or concentration ranges. -OR- Relative change in the absorption of a standard white pigment when a specified amount of absorbing pigment, black or chromatic, is added. This is basically the common definition of tinting strength.
The substrate is the background over which a colored material is applied. When a colored material does not totally hide the background, the background has an influence on the color difference of the match. If you are working with transparent or translucent material, using a different substrate will change the color of the material.
Substrate blank dyeing
Dyeing without dyestuff but with all auxiliaries.
Specific substrate delivery. Small differences between different substrate deliveries may force corrections of the recipe.
A specific ingredient type that identifies a collection of ingredients sometimes worked with as a group usually for purposes of formula scaling. It is a component ingredient, usually a solvent or diluent, added to a formula for viscosity adjustment. A thinner cannot be a colorant and does not have a strength factor.
A numerical value used to determine the acceptability of a sample.
A term used to describe a sample that is not completely transparent, nor opaque. Light is partially absorbed and scattered by the materials in the sample, and by the background of the sample. Samples that are translucent are also said to exhibit ‘incomplete hide’.
A measurement of light passing through an object.
Adjective to describe a material that transmits light without diffusion or scattering.
A resin that does not scatter or absorb any light.
A treatment consists of one or more operations describing the dyeing process for laboratory and/or production.
In pigment formulation software, this is the sample that is compared to the target. It represents the color that you want to correct. It is also referred to as the batch sample.
A colorant with high scattering and low absorption.
Typically refers to all non- colored or clear bases such as pastel, medium deep, etc.